Fractional Interests in Real Estate: The Unintentional But Effective Partnership

 by Jeff Waddell

A gift of a small interest in real estate can have a greater benefit than intended.  So you decided to transfer a one percent interest in the family farm to your daughter last year.  The values were such that the 1% worked out to about $13,000 so you were within your annual exclusion and that was the plan.  You may have done a lot better than you thought from an estate tax perspective.

By creating a fractional interest situation, the farm is now effectively owned by a partnership between you and your daughter.  No third party is going to buy your 99% interest without the ability to obtain her separate 1% interest so effectively you have created a non-marketable interest in real estate.  Additionally, you cannot independently obtain financing on the property or enter into agreements affecting the property without your daughter’s consent. That means you also have a lack of control over the property.  Both of these factors, lack of marketability and lack of control, are recognized discounts which, at present, can be taken for estate and gift tax return purposes.  The amount of the discount depends on a number of factors; but, even with a discount as low as 20%, the effect of your 1% gift can be dramatic, as illustrated below.

Property Value: $1,300,000 prior to gift.  Transfer 1% for $13,000.  Undiscounted remaining value in estate $1,287,000.

Property Value: $1,300,000 prior to gift. Transfer 1% for $13,000. Discount for lack of control and marketability 20%. Remaining value in estate $1,029,600.

Fractional ownership of real estate can be burdensome, but when used effectively can have significant transfer tax benefit as illustrated above.  Consideration of this technique in a fully developed estate and business plan is certainly appropriate for those who have significant real estate holdings.

Explore posts in the same categories: Asset Protection, Charitable Giving, Estate Planning, Gift Taxes

Tags: , , ,

You can comment below, or link to this permanent URL from your own site.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: