Archive for the ‘Charitable Giving’ category

Drafting your Last Will and Testament – You May Delay, but Time Will Not

May 8, 2013

 By Rose Wilson

You may have heard stories in the news recently about Roman Blum, the multi-millionaire from New York who died without a will, leaving an estate of $40 million without any named beneficiaries.  Today, almost a year and a half from the date of his death, it is possible that the money will stay in the hands of the state government as none of his heirs have been found.

Many people procrastinate when it comes to completing their estate planning, but what happens if you die without a will?  A common misconception is that the government will receive your assets.  In reality, the answer to this question depends on the “intestacy” law of the state in which you reside at the time of your death.  To die “intestate” means to die without a will.  When this occurs, the identity of your heirs will be determined by state law, and intestacy laws vary from state to state.

In the state of Georgia, the intestacy law generally provides for distribution of the estate in the following order.  If you are married and have no children at the time of your death, your spouse will receive all of your assets.  If you are married with children at the time of your death, then your spouse and your children share the estate in equal shares, although your spouse will receive at least one-third of the estate.  If you die unmarried and without descendants, then your property will pass in equal shares to your nearest living relatives (parents, then siblings if your parents are not alive, then your nieces and nephews, and continuing out along the family lines according to degree of kinship).

In the event that you die intestate and no heirs can be identified, then your estate will remain with the government.  The scenario in which an individual has no heirs seems unlikely because one must have a living relative somewhere on the planet.  The real trouble comes in identifying the heirs, but cases where no heirs can be identified are uncommon.

What if your heir under state law is your third cousin twice removed, whom you barely know, and you prefer that your money go to friends or charity?  Then you must sign a will to make that happen.  Whether you’re a multi-millionaire like Roman Blum, or simply an average Joe, a last will and testament may be one of the most important legal documents you will ever prepare.  Not only does it provide for the disposition of your assets in the manner that you desire, it can provide numerous other benefits to your estate beneficiaries, such as asset protection, tax savings, and more.

Fractional Interests in Real Estate: The Unintentional But Effective Partnership

March 14, 2012

 by Jeff Waddell

A gift of a small interest in real estate can have a greater benefit than intended.  So you decided to transfer a one percent interest in the family farm to your daughter last year.  The values were such that the 1% worked out to about $13,000 so you were within your annual exclusion and that was the plan.  You may have done a lot better than you thought from an estate tax perspective.

By creating a fractional interest situation, the farm is now effectively owned by a partnership between you and your daughter.  No third party is going to buy your 99% interest without the ability to obtain her separate 1% interest so effectively you have created a non-marketable interest in real estate.  Additionally, you cannot independently obtain financing on the property or enter into agreements affecting the property without your daughter’s consent. That means you also have a lack of control over the property.  Both of these factors, lack of marketability and lack of control, are recognized discounts which, at present, can be taken for estate and gift tax return purposes.  The amount of the discount depends on a number of factors; but, even with a discount as low as 20%, the effect of your 1% gift can be dramatic, as illustrated below.

Property Value: $1,300,000 prior to gift.  Transfer 1% for $13,000.  Undiscounted remaining value in estate $1,287,000.

Property Value: $1,300,000 prior to gift. Transfer 1% for $13,000. Discount for lack of control and marketability 20%. Remaining value in estate $1,029,600.

Fractional ownership of real estate can be burdensome, but when used effectively can have significant transfer tax benefit as illustrated above.  Consideration of this technique in a fully developed estate and business plan is certainly appropriate for those who have significant real estate holdings.

Jingle Bells or Ringing Out the Year Gone By – Time Is Short to Complete Annual Planning

November 14, 2011

 by Jeff Waddell

Each year at this time our section of the office begins to get really busy.  Clients we have reached out to all year but who have not responded suddenly begin appearing.  Yes, its year end annual gifting time.  Pay heed to the sounds of the approaching holiday season, for in all the merriment those sounds signal the last days to take advantage of annual exclusion gifting or the last opportunity to capture a loss to offset a gain in the same tax year.

Take the opportunity to be proactive.  Review what you have done and what can, or should, be done before year-end.  Be aware that the annual gifting exclusion for each individual is currently $13,000.  Consider consulting your accountant (now is a relatively quiet period for them) to determine whether you are likely to experience an unpleasant April surprise on your tax bill and if so what might help offset that unwanted occurrence.  Then give your estate planning attorney a call to discuss what needs to occur before year end.

Just as with holiday giving, estate planning gifts come in all shapes and sizes.  Annual gifting is something, as the name implies, to consider every year.  This year and next, unless and until the law changes, larger opportunities exist than ever before in the gifting arena (with lifetime $5 million dollar gifting exemptions) so, if your current financial situation allows, consider making it a truly memorable holiday season for yourself and your loved ones.

IRS Tests Imposition of Gift Taxes on Contributions to 501(c)(4) Social Welfare Organizations

May 20, 2011

 By Rose Drupiewski

Nonprofit social welfare organizations may be exempt from federal income taxes under Code section 501(c)(4).  Unlike contributions to public charities, contributions to social welfare organizations are not entitled to income tax charitable deductions under the Code. While it is clear that charitable deductions are not allowed for contributions to social welfare organizations, it is not clear whether such contributions will be subject to gift taxes.

The Code contains no specific gift tax exemptions for contributions to 501(c)(4) organizations as it does for contributions to certain other tax exempt entities such as 501(c)(3) public charities. While the law may allow the imposition of gift taxes on such transfers, the real question is whether or not the IRS will attempt to impose gift taxes. Many organizations, including the ABA’s Exempt Organizations Committee, have urged the IRS not to impose gift taxes on such contributions.

Recently, the IRS issued letters to certain contributors claiming that their donations to 501(c)(4) organizations were subject to gift taxes. The actions have prompted a swift response from Republican members of the Senate Finance Committee, who issued a letter to the IRS Commissioner on May 18 requesting additional information about the IRS’s intent to enforce gift taxes in these situations.

For those considering contributions to social welfare organizations, the IRS’s recent actions may stall future contributions. For everyday taxpayers, this may serve as a reminder that gift taxes can arise outside the family context.